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Are wader nest scrapes adaptively designed to minimize clutch cooling rate? - Arboreal avian nests likely function partly to insulate clutches. Hartman and Oring (2003) studied the importance of nest orientation to nest microclimate in Horned Larks in California. Nests showed a significant northern bias in orientation angle and were 49% shaded in the early afternoon, the hottest part of the day. The rate of conductive heat loss from within a scrape increased with scrape depth and decreased with lining depth. Convective heat loss increased with wind speed in shallow scrapes but not in deep scrapes. Mites and birds: diversity, parasitism and coevolution. Scrape dimensions therefore approximated those likely to minimize overall heat loss, given the conflicting thermal pressures of the environment. Available lining materials differed in insulative quality both when wet and dry.
The position of vegetation (curved black bars) around Horned Lark nests relative to the direction of prevailing winds. Sandpipers (Scolopacidae) switch from monoester to diester preen waxes during courtship and incubation, but why? We are able to perform NIST traceable calibrations on all types of laboratory or process analyzers and devices. [Read More...]Process Measuring, Controlling, and Recording Instruments We are able to calibrate or repair all manufacturers' type process instruments for any type of application.